Morane-Saulnier M.S. 275

The Morane-Saulnier M.S. 275 was the last parasol wing fighter designed by the Morane-Saulnier company, and was produced in response to a French air ministry specification for a single seat fighter first issued in 1930. This specification was issued after the failure of the lightweight fighter specification of 1926, which had called for a lower-cost fighter with a good rate of climb, capable of intercepting enemy bombers as they crossed the French border. Morane-Saulnier designed a series of parasol wing fighters in response to this specification, starting with the M.S. 121 of 1927, which evolved into the more powerful M.S. 221, the supercharged M.S. 222 and the very similar M.S. 223. In 1930 the lightweight fighter contest was cancelled. Morane-Saulnier had already begun work on a slightly heavier version of their design, the M.S. 224 and this was accepted into service in a modified version as the M.S. 225.

In 1930 the French Air Ministry issued a new specification for a single seat fighter, modifying in on 26 January 1931. Ten designs were submitted, including two from Morane-Saulnier. The M.S. 325 was a new low wing monoplane, but the M.S. 275 was a development of their earlier parasol designs. Its basic configuration was identical to that of the M.S. 325, with a swept back parasol wing with rounded tips, fixed undercarriage with oleo-pneumatic suspension, the pilot located just behind the trailing edge of the wing, and armed with two 7.7mm machine guns. The M.S. 275 was also powered by a Gnome Rhône radial engine, in this case the 9Krse, providing 600hp. The new aircraft was also very similar in size to the M.S. 325, although the wingspan was increased by two feet.

Despite the outwards similarities, much of the detailed design was new. The M.S. 275 retained the manoeuvrability of the earlier aircraft, and its top speed rose from the 207mph of the M.S. 225 to 225mph. The low wing M.S. 325 was only slightly faster, at 227mph. The main problem with the M.S. 275 was that by 1934, when it made its maiden flight, it was already obsolescent. Newer designs across Europe featured low wings, enclosed cockpits, and retractable undercarriage. Amongst them was the Morane-Saulnier M.S.405, which made its maiden flight in 1935 and that was already under development in 1934. Work on the M.S. 275 was thus abandoned.

Engine: Gnome Rhône 9Krse
Power: 600hp
Crew: 1
Wing span: 36ft 7 2/3in
Length: 23ft 9in
Height: 10ft 9 3/4in
Empty Weight: 3,000lb
Loaded Weight: 3,801lb
Max Speed: 225mph
Range: 715 miles
Armament: Two 7.7mm machine guns

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How to cite this article: Rickard, J (21 December 2011), Morane-Saulnier M.S. 275 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_morane_saulnier_MS275.html

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