4000 BC 1000 BC 300 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1810 1850 1900 1925 1950

4000 B.C.

   

3000 B.C.

   

2000 B.C.

   

c.1275 B.C.

  Battle of Kadesh

1000 B.C.

   

580 B.C.

  Pentathlus' Expedition to Sicily of c.580 was probably one of the first clashes between the Greeks and the Phoenician inhabitants of western Sicily, and ended with a victory for the Phoenicians and their local allies.

525 B.C.

 

The Persian Conquest of Egypt of 525 BC saw Cambyses II of Persia conquer the fourth major power of the ancient near east, completing the series of conquests begun by his father Cyrus II the Great.

The battle of Pelusium (early 525 BC) was the decisive battle of the first Persian invasion of Egypt, and saw Cambyses II defeat Psamtik III, opening the rest of Egypt to conquest.

The siege of Memphis (early 525 BC) was the last recorded resistance to Cambyses II of Persia's invasion of Egypt, and came after the main Egyptian army had been defeated at Pelusium.

510 B.C.

  Dorieus' Expedition to Sicily (c.510 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by a band of Greek adventurers to capture the town of Eryx in western Sicily and use it as the basis of a new Greek city.

500 B.C.

 

Birth of Sun Tzu

The Greco-Persian Wars of c.500-448 BC involved a series of clashes between the Persian Empire and the Greeks of Asia Minor and mainland Greece, and ended as something of a draw, with the Persians unable to conquer mainland Greece and the Greeks unable to maintain the independence of the cities of Asia Minor.

499 or 496 B.C.

 

The battle of Lake Regillus (499 or 496 BC) was a narrow Roman victory over the Latin League early in the life of the Republic that helped to prevent the last of the kings of Rome from regaining his throne.

499 B.C.

 

The Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC) was a major uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Persian rule, and is said to have either delayed an inevitable Persian invasion of mainland Greece, or made that invasion more likely.

The siege of Naxos (499 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian backed attempt to restore a part of exiled Naxian aristocrats. The failure of the attack played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC), an attempt to overthrow Persian control of the Greek cities of Ionian.

498 B.C.

 

The battle of Sardis (498 BC) was a minor success for the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt, and despite being followed by a retreat and a defeat at Ephesus, helped to spread the revolt to Byzantium, the Hellespont and Caria.

The battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a victory won by the Persians over a rebellious Greek army that was retreating from an attack on the city of Sardis (Ionian Revolt).

498/7 B.C.

  The siege of Amathus (c.498/7) saw an attempt by Greek rebels to capture the pro-Persian Phoenician city of Amathus on Cyprus.

497 B.C.

 

The battle of Salamis, c.497 BC, was a land and sea battle on Cyprus, won by the Persians on land and the Cypriotes and their Ionian allies at sea.

The siege of Paphos (c.497) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the defeat of the Cyprian rebels at Salamis.

The siege of Soli (c.497 BC) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the island's failed participation in the Ionian Revolt, and was the last to be concluded, lasting for four months.

The battle of the Maeander (497 BC) was the first of three battles between Carian rebels and the Persians that eventually disrupted the first major Persian counterattack during the Ionian Revolt.

The battle of Labraunda (497 BC) was the second of three battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a second costly defeat for the Carians.

497-496 B.C.

  The battle of Pedasus or Pedasa (497 or 496 BC) was the third in a series of battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a major Persian defeat that effectively ended their first large scale counterattack against the rebels.

494 B.C.

 

The battle of Lade (494 BC) was the decisive battle of the Ionian Revolt, and was a crushing Persian naval victory that eliminated Ionian naval power and left the individual Ionian cities exposed to attack.

The siege of Miletus (494 BC) followed the Ionian naval defeat in the battle of Lade, and saw the Persians recapture the city that had triggered the Ionian Revolt in 499.

The battle of Malene (494 BC) ended the career of Histiaeus, former Tyrant of Miletus, a former support of Darius who may have played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt, but who ended his career as something of an adventurer.

493 B.C.

 

The battle of the Helorus River (c.493 BC) saw Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, defeat the army of Syracuse, but he was unable to capitalise on his victory by capturing the city.

Probable end of the Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC)

490 B.C.

 

The siege of Carystus (490 BC) was an early Persian victory in the campaign that ended at the battle of Marathon.

The battle of Eretria (490 BC) was the second and final Persian success during the campaign that ended in defeat at Marathon.

The battle of Marathon (12 September 490 BC) was the decisive battle during Darius I of Persian's campaigns against the Greeks, and saw the Persians defeated by a largely Athenian army at Marathon in north-eastern Attica.

489 B.C.

  The siege of Paros (489 BC) was the final campaign of Miltiades, the most important Athenian leader during the battle of Marathon of 490 BC.

483-474 B.C.

 

The First Veientine War (483-474 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between Rome and her nearest Etruscan neighbour, the city of Veii.

481-480 B.C.

  The Carthaginian Invasion of Greek Sicily of 481-480 BC took place at the same time as Xerxes's invasion of Greece and ended with a Greek victory at the battle of Himera.

480 B.C.

 

The battle of Artemisium (August 480 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle that was fought on the same three days as the battle of Thermopylae, and that ended when the Greek fleet retreated after learning of the Persian victory at Thermopylae.

The battle of Thermopylae (August 480 BC) is one of the most famous military defeats in history, and is best known for the fate of the 300 Spartans, killed alongside 700 Thespians on the final day of the battle.

The siege of Himera (480 BC) was the first military action of the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily of 480, and was ended by the dramatic Carthaginian defeat at the battle of Himera.

The battle of Salamis (23 or 24 September 480 BC) was the decisive battle of Xerxes's invasion of Greece, and was a major Greek naval victory that left the Persian army dangerously isolated in southern Greece.

The siege of Andros (c.480 BC) is an incident recorded by Herodotus as taking part in the period after the Greek naval victory at Salamis.

The battle of Himera (autumn 480 BC) was a famous victory won by the Greeks of Syracuse over an invading Carthaginian army.

480-479 B.C.

  The siege of Potidaea (480-479 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian attempt to capture the strongly fortified city in the aftermath of Xerxes's retreat from Greece, and is notable for the first historical record of a tsunami.

479 B.C.

Early

The siege of Olynthus (early 479 BC) was a success for the Persian forces that had escorted Xerxes back to the Hellespont after the battle of Salamis and saw the city fall to assault and a large part of its population massacred.
 

27 August

The battle of Plataea (27 August 479 BC) was the decisive land battle during the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479) and saw the Persian land army left behind after the failure of the 480 campaign defeated by a coalition of Greek powers.

The battle of Mycale (479 BC) was a land battle that resulted in the destruction of the Persian fleet in Asia Minor, and that encouraged the Ionian cities to rebel against Persian authority.

    The siege of Thebes (479 BC) followed the Greek victory over the invading Persians at Plataea, and ended after the main Persian supporters in Thebes surrendered.

479-8 B.C.

  Sestus, siege, 479-478 BC

472-1 B.C.

  The battle of Akragas (c.472-1 BC) was a clash between Heiro, tyrant of Syracuse and Thrasydaeus, tyrant of Akragas, that ended in victory for Heiro.

474 B.C.

  The naval battle of Cumae (or Cyme) of 474 BC saw a combined fleet from Syracuse and Cumae defeat an Etruscan fleet in a battle fought in the bay of Naples.

466 B.C.

  The Syracusan Revolution of 466 BC ended a period of tyrannical rule in the city and ushered in a prolonged period of democracy and prosperity.

465 B.C.

  The battle of Crastus (c.465 BC) took place in the period between the removal of several Tyrants on Sicily and the establishment of a period of peace, and was fought between Akragas on one side and the inhabitants of the town of Crastus and their allies from Himera and Gela on the other.

451 B.C.

 

The siege of Motyum (451 BC) was the first known attempt by the Sicel leader Ducetius to conquer an area held by one of the major Greek powers of Sicily, and led to his greatest victory over the Greeks at the battle of Motyum.

The battle of Motyum (451 BC) was the most important battlefield victory won by the Sicel leader Ducetius, but he was defeated at Nomae in the following year and forced into exile.

450 B.C.

  The battle of Nomae (450 BC) was a defeat that reduced the power of Ducetius, king of the Sicels, and that eventually forced him into exile.

448 B.C.

  The Peace of Callias (c.448 BC) was almost certainly a formal peace treaty between Persia and the Athenian-led Greek alliance that ended half a century of open conflict between the two powers, and established their spheres of influence in the eastern Mediterranean.

446 B.C.

  The battle of the Himera River (446 BC) was a clash between the Greek cities of Syracuse and Akragas, triggered by the return to Sicily of the Sicel leader Ducetius

440 B.C.

  The siege of Trinacie (c.440 BC) was one of the final stages in the Greek conquest of the Sicels, the native inhabitants of eastern Sicily.

437-434 or 428-425 B.C.

 

The Second Veientine War (437-434 or 428-425 B.C.) was fought for control of the crossing over the Tiber at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.

437 or 428 B.C.

 

The battle of the Anio (437 or 428 B.C.) was a Roman victory early in the Second Veientine War that was won after Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii, was killed in single combat

435 or 426 B.C.

 

The battle of Nomentum (435 or 426 B.C.) was a Roman victory over a combined army from Veii and Fidenae that was followed by a successful Roman attack on Fidenae, and possibly by the end of the Second Veientine War.

435 or 426 B.C.

 

The siege of Fidenae (435 or 426 B.C.) saw the Romans capture the town only five miles upstream on the Tiber and eliminate the last Veientine enclave on the right bank of the Tiber.

435-431 B.C.

  The Corinth-Corcyra War of 435-431 BC began as a dispute between Corinth and her colony Corcyra, but the Athenians were soon dragged into the conflict, and it contributed to the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War.

435 B.C.

 

The siege of Epidamnus (435 BC) saw the Corcyraeans capture their own former colony, overcoming a garrison partly provided by their own mother city of Corinth

The battle of Leucimme (435 BC) was a naval victory won by Corcyra over the Corinthians that gave them control of the seas around the western coast of Greece and allowed them to launch raids on Corinth's allies for much of the next year

433 B.C.

  The battle of Sybota (433 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle between Corinth and Corcyraean that saved Corcyra from invasion, but that also played a part in the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War.

432-30/29 B.C.

  The siege of Potidaia (432-430/29 BC) saw the Athenians besiege a city that was part of their empire, and was one of a series of relatively minor military clashes that helped to trigger the Great Peloponnesian War.

431 B.C.

  The Great Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was a titanic struggle between Athens and Sparta that engulfed the entire Greek world, and that ended with the total defeat of Athens and the destruction of her naval empire.

429 B.C.

 

The battle of Spartolus of 429 BC was a costly Athenian defeat in a battle fought just outside the city of Spartolus in Chalcidice. s

The battle of Stratus (429 BC) was a Spartan defeat that ended a brief campaign designed to drive the Athenians out of Acarnania, the area to the north-west of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Great Peloponnesian War)

The battle of Chalcis (429 BC) was the first of two Athenian naval victories won in the same year in the Gulf of Corinth that helped demonstrate their naval superiority in the early part of the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of Naupactus (429 BC) was a second Athenian naval victory won in a short period around the Gulf of Corinth, but was won by a very narrow margin and only after the narrow failure of a Peloponnesian plan to trap the entire Athenian fleet.

429-427 B.C.

  The siege of Plataea (429-427 BC) was a Theban victory that saw them capture Athen's only ally in Boiotia, although only after a two-year long siege.

428-427 B.C.

  The siege of Mytilene (428-427 BC) saw the Athenians defeat a revolt on the island of Lesbos, and is most famous for the two debates about the correct punishment for the rebels.

426 B.C.

 

The battle of Aegitium (426 BC) was an Athenian defeat that ended a short-lived invasion of Aetolia.

The siege of Naupactus (426 BC) was a short-lived Spartan attempt to capture a key Athenian naval base on the northern shores of the Gulf of Corinth.

The battle of Olpae (426 BC) was an Athenian victory that ended a Spartan campaign aimed at the conquest of Acarnania and Amphilochia.

The battle of Idomene (426 BC) was a second victory in three days won by Demosthenes against the Ambraciots in the north-west of Greece.

The battle of Tanagra (426 BC) was a minor Athenian victory won close to the city of Tanagra in Boeotia.

425 B.C.

 

The battle of Pylos (425 BC) was the first part of a two-part battle most famous the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites trapped on the island of Sphacteria.

The battle of Sphacteria (425 BC) was the second part of a two-part battle which ended with the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Solygia (425 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during a raid on Corinth, but one that had little long term impact (Great Peloponnesian War).

424 B.C.

  The battle of Delium (424 BC) was a costly Athenian defeat that came during an unsuccessful attempt to seize control of Boeotia (Great Peloponnesian War).

423-421 B.C.

  The siege of Scione (423-421 B.C.) came after the city rebelled against Athens, with Spartan support, but continued on after those cities agreed a short-lived peace treaty, and at the end the defenders of the city were either executed or sold into slavery.

423 or 422 B.C.

  The battle of Laodocium (423 or 422 BC) was a clash between two Peloponnesian cities, fought during a brief armistice between Athens and Sparta (Great Peloponnesian War).

422 B.C.

  The battle of Amphipolis (422 BC) was a disastrous Athenian defeat in Thrace, inflicted on them by an army led by the Spartan Brasidas.

421 B.C.

  The Peace of Nicias (421 BC) brought a temporary end to the fighting in the Great Peloponnesian War. Although it was meant to last for fifty years, it was broken after only a year and a half, and the war continued until 404 BC.

418 B.C.

 

The siege of Orchomenes (418 B.C.) was a short-lived success won by an alliance of Greek cities led by Argos and that included Athens.

The battle of Mantinea (418 BC) was a Spartan victory over an alliance of Peloponnesian states led by Argos and supported by Athens. The alliance survived into the following year, but the threat that it originally posed to Sparta was gone.

415 B.C.

  The battle of Syracuse (or of the Anapus River) of 415 BC was an Athenian victory won close to the shore south of the city of Syracuse, but one that had no impact on the long-term outcome of the Sicilian expedition, which ended in total defeat.

414-413 B.C.

 

The Athenian siege of Syracuse of 414-413 BC was a two year long epic that ended with the total defeat and destruction of the Athenian army, and that put Athens onto the defensive in the renewed fighting in the Great Peloponnesian War.

412 B.C.

 

The unsuccessful siege of Miletus (412 BC) was a major Athenian setback early in the Ionian phase of the Great Peloponnesian War, and helped establish a revolt against Athenian power in the area.

The battle of Panormus (412 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during the longer siege of Miletus, most notable for the death of the Spartan commander Chalcideus.

The battle of Miletus (412 BC) was an Athenian victory fought outside the walls of Miletus, but that was followed almost immediately by the arrival of a Peloponnesian fleet and an Athenian retreat.

412/411 B.C.

  The battle of Cnidus (412/411 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle which meant that the Athenians were unable to prevent two Spartan fleets from uniting on the coast of Asia Minor.

411 B.C.

 

The battle of Eretria (411 BC) was a naval defeat suffered by Athens that was followed by a major revolt on the island of Euboea, cutting the city off from one of its last sources of food (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Cynossema (411 BC) was the first major Athenian victory since their disastrous defeat on Sicily in 413 BC, and helped restore morale in the city after a series of setbacks and a period of political upheaval.

410 B.C.

  The battle of Cyzicus (410 BC) was a major Athenian victory won in the Propontis and that temporarily restored Athenian control of the Hellespont and the sea routes to the Black Sea, as well as restoring confidence and morale in Athens after the disaster at Syracuse

409/408 B.C.

  The battle of Megara (409/408 BC) was a rare example of an Athenian victory on land over a force that contained Spartan troops.

408 B.C.

 

The siege of Chalcedon (408 BC) was part of an Athenian attempt to regain control of the Bosphorus and ensure the safety of Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

The siege of Byzantium (408 BC) was an Athenian victory that saw them regain control over the Bosphorus, and remove a threat to Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

407 B.C.

  The battle of Notium (407 BC) was a minor Athenian naval defeat, but in its aftermath Alcibiades went into exile for a second time, removing one of the best Athenian commanders of the Great Peloponnesian War.

406 B.C.

 

The siege of Delphinium (406 BC) was a minor Peloponnesian success that came early in the command of Callicratidas, an admiral who replaced the popular Lysander in command of the Peloponnesian fleet in Asia Minor.

The siege of Methymne (406 BC) was a second success for the Peloponnesian fleet commanded by Callicratidas, and saw the loss of a second Athenian stronghold on the coast of Asia Minor.

The siege of Mytilene (406 BC) saw the Peloponnesians attempt to capture this Athenian held city on Lesbos. The siege was ended by the Athenian naval victory at Arginusea, but the reaction to the aftermath of this battle played a part in the final Athenian defeat in the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of the Arginusae Islands (406 BC) was the last major Athenian victory of the Great Peloponnesian War, but after the battle six of the eight victorious generals were executed for failing to rescue the crews of the twenty five Athenian warships lost during the battle.

405 B.C.

  The battle of Aegospotami (405 BC) was a crushing Athenian defeat that effectively ended the Great Peloponnesian War, leaving the city vulnerable to a siege and naval blockade.

405-396 B.C.

 

The Third Veientine War (405-396 B.C.) saw the Roman Republic finally capture and destroy their closest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii, after a siege that lasted for ten years

The ten year long siege of Veii (405-396 B.C.) was the main event of the Third Veientine War and saw the Romans finally conquer their nearest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii.

404 B.C.

 

The siege of Athens (to 404 BC) was the final act of the Great Peloponnesian War, and confirmed the Spartan victory that had been made almost inevitable at the naval battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC.

End of the Great Peloponnesian War (from 431 BC)

403 B.C.

 

The battle of Phyle (403 BC) was the first of three battles that saw the Athenian democrats led by Thrasybulus overthrow a Spartan-supported oligarchy that was then ruling in Athens.

The battle of Munychia (403 BC) was a significant victory for Democratic rebels against the Spartan imposed rule of the Thirty at Athens, and played a significant part in the reestablishment of Democracy at Athens in the aftermath of the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of Piraeus (403 BC) saw the Spartans defeat the pro-democratic forces of Thrasybulus outside the port of Athens, but divisions within the Spartan leadership meant that the Athenians were still able to restore their democracy

400-387 B.C.

  The Persian-Spartan War (400-387 BC) saw the Spartans break with their former supporters in Persia and attempt to replace the Athenians as the defenders of the Greeks of Asia Minor. They were soon distracted by the Corinthian War in Greece, and at the end of the war sacrificed their original allies in order to maintain their position of power at home.

395-386 B.C.

  The Corinthian War (395-386 BC) saw the Spartans, with eventual Persian aid, defeat an alliance of Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens and apparently remain the dominant power on mainland Greece. However the early part of the war took place at the same time as a Persian-Spartan War (400- 387 BC) that saw Sparta lose her short-lived maritime empire, and it was quickly followed by an intervention at Thebes that ended in disaster.

395 B.C.

 

The battle of Sardis (395 BC) was a minor victory for Agesilaus II of Sparta during his period in command of the Spartan war effort in Asia Minor that triggered the fall of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes and led to a six month truce in Caria and Lydia.

The battle of Haliartus (395 BC) was the first significant fighting during the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and was a Spartan defeat that saw the death of Lysander, their victorious leader from of the Great Peloponnesian War.

394 B.C.

 

The battle of Naryx (394 BC) was a costly victory won by the forces of an anti-Spartan alliance over a Phocian army early in the Corinthian War (395-386 BC).

The battle of Nemea (394 BC) was the first major fighting on the Corinthian front that gave the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) its name, and was an inconclusive Spartan victory.

The battle of Cnidus (394 BC) was a decisive Persian naval victory that ended the brief period of Spartan naval supremacy that followed the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and in its aftermath the short-lived Spartan domination of the Aegean crumbled.

The battle of Coronea (394 BC) was an inconclusive Spartan victory that saw Agesilaus II defeat an allied army that was attempting to block his path across Boeotia, but not by a big enough margin to allow him to continue with his invasion (Corinthian War, 395-386 BC).

392 B.C.

  The capture of Lechaeum (392 BC) saw the Spartans take advantage of civil strife within Corinth to capture the port of Lechaeum on the Corinthian Gulf (Corinthian War).

390 B.C.

 

The First Gallic Invasion of Italy of 390 B.C. was a pivotal event in the history of the Roman Republic and saw the city occupied and sacked for the last time in eight hundred years.

 

18 July

The battle of the Allia (18 July 390 B.C.) was one of the most embarrassing defeats in Roman history, and left the city defenceless in the face of a Gallic war band.

   

The sack of Rome (390 B.C.) was the worst recorded disaster in the history of the early Roman Republic, and saw a Gallic war band led by Brennus capture and sack most of the city, after winning an easy victory on the Allia

   

The battle of the Trausian Plain (c.390-384 B.C.) probably saw an Etruscan army from the city of Caere defeat all or part of the Gallic war band that was responsible for the sack of Rome

    The battle of Lechaeum or Corinth (390 BC) was a rare defeat for Spartan hoplites at the hands of light troops, commanded by the Athenian Iphicrates (Corinthian War).

386 B.C.

  The King's Peace or Peace of Antalcidas (Spring 386 BC) ended the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and temporarily secured Spartan dominance of mainland Greece while at the same time acknowledging Persian control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor.

385 B.C.

  The siege of Mantinea (385 BC) saw the Spartans take advantage of their dominant position in Greece after the end of the Corinthian War to attack one of their long standing local rivals and a half-hearted ally in the recent war.

382-379 B.C.

  The Olynthian-Spartan War (382-379 BC) saw the Spartans intervene in northern Greece in an attempt to limit the power of the Chalcidian League.

382 B.C.

  The battle of Olynthus (382 BC) was a near defeat for a Spartan army that had been sent north to more vigorously conduct the war against Olynthus that had begun earlier in the same year.

381 B.C.

 

The battle of Apollonia (381 BC) saw Sparta's ally Derdas of Elimia defeat an Olynthian cavalry raid that had entered the territory of Apollonia.

The battle of Olynthus (381 BC) was the second battle fought by the Spartans close to the city during their expedition to Chalcidice, and ended with defeat and the death of the Spartan commander Teleutias.

381-379 B.C.

  The siege of Phlius (381-380/379 BC) saw the Spartans besiege one of their allies in order to restore the rights of a group of exiled oligarchs, one of a series of heavy handed Spartans interventions in the internal affairs of other Greek cities that came in the aftermath of the end of the Corinthian War.

379-371 B.C.

  The Theban-Spartan War or Boeotian War (379-371 BC) was a conflict triggered by Sparta's attempts to impose her dominance over the rest of Greece, and that ended with a dramatic Spartan defeat that marked the beginning of the end for Sparta as a great power.

378 B.C.

 

The Theban campaign of 378 BC was the first of two unsuccessful invasions of Boeotia led by King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and ended after a standoff close to the city of Thebes.

The battle of Thespiae (378 BC) was a Theban victory that ended a period of Sparta raids from their base at Thespiae, and in which the Spartan commander Phoebidas was killed.

377 B.C.

  The Theban campaign of 377 BC was the second attempt by King Agesilaus II of Sparta to force Thebes to accept Spartan control, but like his first attempt in the previous year the campaign ended in failure.

376 B.C.

 

The battle of Cithaeron (376 BC) was a minor Spartan defeat that prevented them from conducting a fourth invasion of Boeotia in four years (Theban-Spartan War).

The battle of Naxos (September 376 BC) was the first naval victory won by an official Athenian fleet since the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and saw a fleet besieging Naxos defeat a Spartan fleet sent to lift the siege.

375 B.C.

 

The battle of Alyzeia (June or July 375 BC) saw the Athenians defeat a Spartan fleet that was supporting an attempt to move troops across the Corinthian Gulf into Boeotia (Theban-Spartan or Boeotian War, 379-371 BC).

The battle of Tegyra (Spring 375 BC) saw an outnumbered Theben defeat a force of Spartan hoplites twice its own size, an early sign that the Thebans were no longer intimidated by the impressive reputation of the Spartans (Theban-Spartan War, 379-371 BC).

373-372 B.C.

  The siege and battle of Corcyra (373-2 BC) saw the defeat of a Spartan attempt to seize control of the Ionian Sea, and triggered a resumption of warfare in the Theban-Spartan or Boeotian War (379-381 BC).

371 B.C.

  The battle of Leuctra (371 BC) was the first major defeat suffered by the main Spartan hoplite army, and played a major part in the collapse of Spartan power after their triumph in the Great Peloponnesian War.

371-362 B.C.

  The Theban Hegemony (371-362) was a short period in which the battlefield victories of Epaminondas overthrew the power of Sparta, and made Thebes the most powerful state in Greece. It began with the crushing Theban victory over a Spartan army at Leuctra, and effectively ended with the death of Epaminondas at the battle of Mantinea.

c.370-350 B.C.

  The Satrap's Revolt (c.370s-350s) was a prolonged period of unrest within the Persian Empire, marked by a series of revolts by the satraps, or provincial governors.

367-366 B.C.

 

The siege of Adramyttium or Assus, c.367-6 BC, saw forces loyal to Artaxerxes II besiege the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes before withdrawing after King Agesilaus of Sparta arrived to help the rebels.

The siege of Sestus (c.367-6 BC) saw forces loyal to the Persian emperor Artaxerxes II unsuccessful besiege allies of the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes, during the second stage of the Satrap's revolt.

358 B.C.

  The battle of Erigon Valley or the Lyncus Plain (358 BC) was the first major battle during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, and saw him defeat the Illyrian king Bardyllis.

357-355 B.C.

  The Social War (357-355 BC) was a conflict between Athens and a number of key members of the Athenian League. The war significantly weakened Athens, and also meant that she was unable to intervene as Philip II of Macedon expanded his kingdom.

357 B.C.

  The siege of Amphipolis (357 BC) was an early victory for Philip II of Macedon, and saw him capture a key foothold in Thrace, although at the cost of permanently damaging his relationship with Athens.

357 or 356 B.C.

  The battle of Chios (357 or 356 BC) was the first fighting during the Social War, and saw the rebels defeat an Athenian land and sea attack on the island.

356 B.C.

 

The siege of Samos (356 BC) saw the rebels against Athens besiege one of the loyal members of the Athenian League (Social War).

The siege of Potidaea (356 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the strongly fortified city at the head of the Pallene peninsula, but then hand it over to Olynthus in order to secure an alliance with that city.

355 B.C.

 

The battle of Embata (356 BC) was a minor naval defeat for Athens during the Social War, but in the aftermath two of her best commanders were put on trial, and the remaining commander soon provoked the Persians.  

Outbreak of the Third Sacred War (to 346 BC), which began as a dispute between Thebes and their neighbours in Phocis over the cultivation of sacred land, but expanded to include most of the Greek powers and was ended by the intervention of Philip II of Macedon, helping to confirm his status as a major power in Greece

The battle of Phaedriades (355 BC) was a Phocian victory early in the Third Sacred War, fought on the slopes of Mount Parnassus.

355-354 B.C.

  The siege of Methone (late 355 BC - early 354 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the last potential Athenian base on the Macedonian coast.

354 B.C.

 

The battle of Argolas (Spring 354 BC) was a Phocian victory over a Thessalian army early in the Third Sacred War, fought at an otherwise unknown hill somewhere in Locris

The battle of Neon (354 BC) was a battle of the Third Sacred War, and was notable for the death of the Phocian leader Philomelus.

354 or 353 B.C.

  The battle of Hermeum (354 or 353 BC) was a Phocian victory over the Boeotians (Third Sacred War), which followed a brief Phocian intervention in Thessaly that saw them inflict two rare battlefield defeats on Philip II

353 B.C.

  The battle of the Crocus Field or of Pagasae (353 BC) was a significant victory for Philip II of Macedon and saw him defeat and kill Onomarchus, the Phocian leader, a victory that helped to secure Philip's dominance over Thessaly.

352 B.C.

 

The battle of Orchomenus (c.352 BC) was the first in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of the Cephisus River (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Coroneia (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Abae (c.352 BC) was one of a series of setbacks suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus, and came after a unsuccessful invasion of Boeotia and a failure to capture the city of Naryx (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Chaeroneia (c.352 BC) was an early defeat in the career of Phalacus as leader of the Phocians (Third Sacred War).

349 B.C.

  The siege of Zeira (349 BC) came at the start of Philip II of Macedon's campaign against Olynthus and Chalcidice, and saw him capture and destroy the city.

348 B.C.

  The siege of Olynthus (348 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon complete his conquest of the Chalcidic League, one of his more powerful immediate neighbours, and an ally for several years.

346 B.C.

 

The siege of Halus (346 BC) was carried out as the same time as peace negotiations between Philip II of Macedon and Athens, and may have been part of Philip's wider plan for a campaign in central Greece (Third Sacred War).

The Peace of Philocrates (346 BC) ended the ten year long War of Amphipolis between Athens and Macedon, and helped establish Philip II of Macedon as a power in central and southern Greece

Philip II of Macedon ends the Third Sacred War (from 355 BC), forcing Phocis to surrender

343 B.C.

 

The First Samnite War (343-341 BC) was the first of three clashes between Rome and the Samnite hill tribes, and ended in a Roman victory that saw the Republic begin to expand into Campania.

   

The battle and siege of Capua of 343 B.C. triggered the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), the first of three wars between Rome and the Samnites.

   

The battle of Mount Gaurus, 343 B.C., was the opening battle of the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a hard fought Roman victory.

   

The battle of Saticula (343 B.C.) was a Roman victory that saw a rare example of the Roman army fighting at night in an attempt to avoid a disaster.

   

The battle of Suessula (343 B.C.) was the final major clash during the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a major Roman victory

340 B.C.

  The Latin War of 340-338 BC was a major step in the road that led to Roman control of the Italian peninsula, and that saw a major change in the relationship between the Roman republic and her former Latin allies.
    The battle of Veseris (or Vesuvius) of 340 BC was the first major battle of the Latin War of 340-338 BC and was a Roman victory made famous by the execution of the young Manlius Torquatus by his father, the consul Manlius Torquatus and the self-sacrifice of the consul Decius Mus.
   

The battle of Trifanum (340 BC) was a Roman victory that ended the Campanian phase of the Latin War of 340-338 BC.

340-339 B.C.

 

The siege of Perinthus (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II of Macedon to defeat a wavering ally, and was conducted alongside an equally unsuccessful siege of Byzantium. Both sieges took place in the period just before the Fourth Sacred War.

The siege of Byzantium (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II to defeat a former ally, and was begun after his siege of nearby Perinthus ran into difficulties. Both sieges came in the build-up to the Fourth Sacred War.  

339-338 B.C.

  The Fourth Sacred War or Amphissean War (339-339 BC) was the final step in Philip II of Macedon's rise to a position of dominance in Greece, and ended with the defeat of the joint Athenian and Theban army at the battle of Chaeronea.

339 B.C.

 

The battle of the Fenectane Plains (339 BC) was a Roman victory in the second year of the Latin War of 340-338 BC

338 B.C.

  The battle of Astura was one of two Roman victories during 338 BC that ended the Latin War of 340-338 BC
   

The battle of Pedum (338 BC) was the decisive battle of the Latin War of 340-338BC and saw the Romans defeat a Latin army sent to protect Pedum and capture the city in the same day

    The battle of Chaeronea (August 338 BC) was the final major battle in the career of Philip II of Macedon, and saw him defeat a Greek alliance led by Thebes and Athens, in the process establishing his dominance over the states of central and southern Greece

327-6 B.C.

 

The Roman siege of Neapolis (Naples) of 327-326 BC was the first fighting in what developed into the Second Samnite War (327-304 BC).

325 B.C.

  The battle of Imbrinium (325 BC) was an early Roman victory in the Second Samnite War most famous for a violent dispute between the Dictator L. Papirius Cursor and his Master of the Horse. 

324-261 B.C.

  Conquests of the Mauryan Empire, c.324-261 BC: The Mauryan Empire was the first power to unite most of the Indian subcontinent, and at its peak stretched from Afghanistan in the north-west, east almost to the mouth of the Ganges and south as far as modern Mysore

323 B.C.

 

Death of Alexander the Great begins the Wars of the Diadachi.

   

Settlement at Babylon, the first attempt to divide up power within Alexander's empire

   

Start of the Lamian or Hellenic War, an attempt by an alliance of Greek cities led by Athens to escape Macedonian control

322 B.C.

 

Siege of Lamia sees alliance led by Athens trap Antipater in the town of Lamia. Death of Athenian general Leosthenes

 

Spring

Battle of Abydos - First of two naval defeats for Athens
 

July

Battle of Amorgos - Major naval defeat that ends Athenian naval power
 

August

Battle of Crannon - Macedonian victory in Thessaly that effectively ends the Lamian War
    Athens knocked out of the Lamian War
   

Outbreak of the First Diadoch War, (to 320 BC) between the successors of Alexander the Great

    According to Livy the Romans won a significant battlefield victory in Samnium during 322 BC (Second Samnite War), at an unnamed location, and with either a specially appointed Dictator or the consuls for the year in command.

321 B.C.

 

Truce between Antipater and the Aetolians ends the Lamian War.

   

Death of Craterus in a battle against Eumenes of Cardia

   

Perdiccas murdered by his officers in Egypt

    The battle of the Caudine Forks (321 BC) was a humiliating defeat inflicted on the Romans by a Samnite army in the Apennine Mountains (Second Samnite War).

320 B.C.

 

End of the First Diadoch War, (from 322 BC).

   

Settlement at Triparadisus second attempt to divide power in Alexander's empire

319 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the Second Diadoch War (to 316 BC)

316 B.C.

 

Battle of Gabiene, marks the end of the Second Diadoch War in Asia (from 319 BC)

    The siege of Saticula (316-315 BC) was a Roman success that marked the resumption of hostilities in the Second Samnite War after a short period of truce.
    The two sieges of Plistica of 316-315 and 315 BC saw a Samnite army make two attempts to capture the city, which was allied with Rome, eventually taking it by assault.

315 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Third Diadoch War (to 311 BC)

   

The battle of Lautulae (315 BC) was the second major Samnite victory during the Second Samnite War, but one that didn't produce any long term advantage

    The siege of Sora (315 and 315-314 BC) saw the Romans recapture the city after a pro-Samnite revolt (Second Samnite War)

314 B.C.

  The battle of Tarracina of 314 BC was a Roman victory that restored the situation after the Samnite victory at Lautulae in the previous year, and that eliminated a Samnite threat to Latium
   

The siege of Bovianum of 314-313 BC was a short-lived  Roman attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tarracina in 314

 

 

311 B.C.

 

End of Third Diadoch War (from 315 BC), ends with all of the main contestants back where they started.

    The Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC was a short conflict between Rome and some of the inland Etruscan cities that for a brief period saw Rome facing a war on two fronts, against the Etruscans to the north and the Samnites to the south.

310 B.C.

  The siege of Sutrium of 311/10-310/9 BC saw the first fighting in the brief Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC, and saw the Etruscans fail in their attempt to capture this key border city
   

The battle of Perusia, 310/309 BC, was a Roman victory that forced several key Etruscan cities to make peace with Rome (Etruscan War, 311/308 BC)

   

The battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) was a major Roman victory that broke the power of the Etruscan cities involved in the short Etruscan War of 311/10-308

308 B.C.

 

The battle of Mevania, 308 BC, was a final Roman victory in the Etruscan War, although it was fought against the Umbrians

307 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Fourth Diadoch War (to 301 BC)

c.306-3 B.C.

  Seleucus I Nicator's invasion of India (c.306-303 BC) was one of a series of obscure campaigns fought by Seleucus in an attempt to gain control of the eastern part of his recently regained kingdom

301 B.C.

 

Fourth Diadoch War ends (from 307 BC) with defeat and death of Antigonus at the battle of Ipsus

Please note this index only includes subjects covered on the site

4000 BC 1000 BC 300 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1810 1850 1900 1925 1950