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The 1st Search Attack Group was an experimental anti-submarine warfare unit that was created in the summer of 1942 at a time when the US military was struggling to cope with the threat of the U-boats.
The 343rd Fighter Group was based in Alaska from the autumn of 1942 and took part in the campaign against the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands.
The 480th Antisubmarine Group (USAAF) was based in Morocco and flew anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic approaches to the Mediterranean.
Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (1763-1815) served under Napoleon early in the future Emperor's career, and was one of first group of Napoleonic Marshals, despite a fairly unimpressive career.
Admiral Laurent Jean François Truguet (1752-1839) was a French admiral who was suspected of hostility to the Revolution, and argued with Napoleon, but still managed to maintain a career that lasted into the post-Napoleonic period.
The Char D1 Infantry Tank was the first French tank to carry a 47mm gun, but it was an unpopular design had had been relegated to service in North Africa by 1940.
The Char D2 was a development of the D1 with more armour and more engine power. It was produced in small numbers, and only because famous because it was used in de Gaulle's armoured unit during the fighting of 1940.
Pausanias (d.c.470-465) was a controversial Spartan who commanded the victorious Greek army at Plataea, but who was later accused of treason and executed in Sparta.
Peisander (d.394 BC) was the brother in law of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and was defeated and killed at the naval battle of Cnidus, where Sparta's brief period of naval domination ended.
The A.E.G. B.I was an unarmed three-bay biplane with wings on unequal span. It was designed in 1914 and used a method of construction that would become the standard for A.E.G. aircraft.
The A.E.G. B.II was an improved version of the B.I. Like the B.I it used welded steel tubes for the fuselage, with wooden wing ribs and a fabric covering.
USS Truxtun (DD-14) was the name ship of the Truxtun class of destroyers. She served in Panamanian and Columbia waters during the early months of the US involvement in the First World War, then spent three months based at the Azores before operating from Brest in France during 1918.
USS Whipple (DD-15) was a Truxtun class destroyer that served off the Panama Canal and from the Azores in 1917, then carried out convoy escort duties and anti-submarine patrols from Brest during 1918.
The 443rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) supported the Allied troops fighting in Burma, and then took part in the efforts to fly supplies into China, ending the war operating directly within China.
The 477th Composite Group (USAAF) was an African-American combat unit that never reached combat, and that suffered from repeated morale problems due to segregation and suspicion of the USAAF's intentions for the group.
The 479th Antisubmarine Group operated from England from mid July 1943 to October 1943, attacking German U-boats as they crossed the Bay of Biscay.
Marshal François Christophe de Kellermann, duke of Valmy (1735-1820) was an experienced commander who helped save the young French Revolution from its foreign enemies at the battle of Valmy.
General François Etienne Kellermann (1770-1835) was the son of Marshal Kellermann, the victor of Valmy, and was a very distinguished cavalry general in his own right, playing a major part in the French victory at Marengo.
Iphicrates (c.418-353 BC) was an Athenian general who played a key part in the recovery of Athenian power in the aftermath of the Corinthian War, but who was less successful during the Social War, fought against Athens's own allies.
Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC) was the victorious Athenian commander at the battle of Marathon, but he died in disgrace in the following year, a victim of the often poisonous politics of Athens.
The A.E.G. J.I was an early ground attack aircraft, designed to fill the new infantry support units created by the German air service in 1916.
The A.E.G. J.II was a modified version of the A.E.G. J.I ground attack aircraft, and was introduced in 1918.
USS Steward (DD-13) was the fastest of the Bainbridge class destroyers, and is often placed into a sub-class of its own.
The Truxtun class destroyers were the last of the first sixteen torpedo boat destroyers built for the US Navy, and were more strongly built than normal and carried one extra 6-pounder gun.
General Barthelémy Loius Joseph Scherer (1747-1804) was a French general best known for commanding the French army in Italy for three separate spells.
Horace François Bastien Sebastiani (1772-1851) was a French general who fought at Austerlitz, in Spain and during the invasion of Russia, but who is perhaps best know for being surprised on several occasions in Russia.
The battle of Rossbrun (26 July 1866) was the final significant fighting during the German campaign of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and saw the Prussians inflict a defeat on the Bavarian army just to the west of Würzburg.
The Treaty of Prague (23 August 1866) ended the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and saw the Austrians withdraw from German affairs and acknowledge the supremacy of Prussia in northern Germany. Prussia gained some four million citizens, and leadership of a North German Confederation.
Agesilaus II, king of Sparta (c.444-360 BC) was a successful general who was unable to prevent the slow decline of Sparta from its position of dominance at the end of the Great Peloponnesian War.
Thibron (d.392 BC) was an unsuccessful Spartan commander who was killed in a Persian ambush in Asia Minor.
The 3rd Combat Cargo Group was a transport unit that was formed in India in 1944 and that operated over India and China for the rest of the war.
The 4th Combat Cargo Group was a transport unit that fought in the Burma campaign and took part in the last stages of the air-lift of supplies into China over the 'Hump'.
The 342nd Composite Group was a mainly fighter unit that formed part of the garrison of Iceland.
USS Perry (DD-11) was a Paul Jones class destroyer that served in the Pacific Fleet. During the First World War she guarded the Panama Canal and then operated in the Florida Keys.
USS Preble (DD-12) was a Paul Jones class destroyer that served with the Pacific Fleet before the First World War and then escorted convoys off the US East Coast.
The Gun Carrier, 3in, Churchill, was produced as an emergency measure in an attempt to provide a more powerful mobile anti-tank weapon than the 2-pounder in use in contemporary British tanks.
The Churchill Octopus was produced in an attempt to clear a safe path across minefields, using turretless Churchill tanks to detonate mines and as the basis of a causeway.
The Douglas C-21/ OA-3 Dolphin was an ambitious aircraft originally ordered as a bomber leader, but normally used as transport and air-sea rescue aircraft.
The Douglas C-26/ OA-4 Dolphin was an improved version of the C-21/ OA-3 Dolphin, with a number of improvements over the earlier aircraft.
The battle of Naryx (394 BC) was a costly victory won by the forces of an anti-Spartan alliance over a Phocian army early in the Corinthian War (395-386 BC).
The battle of Nemea (394 BC) was the first major fighting on the Corinthian front that gave the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) its name, and was an inconclusive Spartan victory.
The Paul Jones class destroyers were a sub-group of the Bainbridge class and were similar to the basic design, but with an increase in displacement.
USS Paul Jones (DD-10) was the name ship of the Paul Jones class of destroyers. Before the outbreak of the First World War she served with the Pacific Fleet, before after US entry into the war she moved to the Atlantic coast.
The Churchill Oke was a prototype flamethrower tank that was produced in 1942 and took part in the disastrous raid on Dieppe.
The Churchill Crocodile was a flamethrower tank based on the Churchill infantry tank, with the flame fuel towed in a separate trailer.
The Douglas YO-48 was to have been a version of the O-46A observation aircraft powered by a Wright engine, but none were built.
The Douglas O-53 Havoc was to have been a heavy observation aircraft based on the A-20 Havoc, but a large order was cancelled before any had been built.
The battle of Sardis (395 BC) was a minor victory for Agesilaus II of Sparta during his period in command of the Spartan war effort in Asia Minor that triggered the fall of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes and led to a six month truce in Caria and Lydia.
The battle of Haliartus (395 BC) was the first significant fighting during the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and was a Spartan defeat that saw the death of Lysander, their victorious leader from of the Great Peloponnesian War.
The battle of Gerchsheim (25 July 1866) saw the Prussians defeat the retreated Federal 8th Corps as it attempted to retreat from the line of the River Tauber towards the Main near Würzburg.
The battle of Helmstadt (25 July 1866) saw the Prussians defeat a Bavarian force that was moving south to aid its Federal allies, who suffered a separate defeat of their own a little further to the south-east, at Gerchsheim
USS Lawrence (DD-8) was the name ship of the Lawrence class of destroyers. Before the First World War she served with both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, while during the war she guarded the Panama Canal and then operated in the Florida Keys.
USS MacDonough (DD-9) was a Lawrence class destroyer that spent most of her career operating on the US East Coast before moving to France in January 1918 to carry out convoy escort duties.
The Churchill Mk X was the designation given to Mk VIs that had been upgraded to carry extra armour, and possibly the cast turret of the Mk VII.
The Churchill Mk XI was the designation given to Mk Vs that were upgraded by giving them extra appliqué armour.
The Douglas O-43 was a parasol wing observation aircraft developed from the experimental O-31 and served with the USAAC in small numbers during the 1930s.
The Douglas O-46 was the main production version of the Douglas family of monoplane observation aircraft, and the first to use a radial engine.
General Henri Gratian, count Bertrand (1773-1844) was one of the most loyal of Napoleon's followers and served under him in most of his campaigns as well as accompanying him into exile twice and accompanying his remains back to France in 1844.
General Jean Nicolas Stofflet (1751-96) was a leader of the revolt in the Vendée, and was executed after taking up arms for a second time.
The Persian-Spartan War (400-387 BC) saw the Spartans break with their former supporters in Persia and attempt to replace the Athenians as the defenders of the Greeks of Asia Minor. They were soon distracted by the Corinthian War in Greece, and at the end of the war sacrificed their original allies in order to maintain their position of power at home.
The Corinthian War (395-386 BC) saw the Spartans, with eventual Persian aid, defeat an alliance of Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens and apparently remain the dominant power on mainland Greece. However the early part of the war took place at the same time as a Persian-Spartan War (400- 387 BC) that saw Sparta lose her short-lived maritime empire, and it was quickly followed by an intervention at Thebes that ended in disaster.
The battle of Werbach (24 July 1866) was one of two battles on the same day that saw the Prussians defeat an attempt by their German opponents to defend the line of the River Tauber (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
The battle of Tauberbischofsheim (24 July 1866) was a Prussian victory that prevented the Federal 8th Corps from defending the line of the River Tauber, and that ended any chance of a coordinated Federal and Bavarian counterattack against the Prussian Army of the Main (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
USS Hull (DD-7) was a Hopkins class destroyer that spent most of her service career operating in home waters. After the US entry into the First World War she protected the Panama Canal Zone and then carried out anti-submarine patrols in the Atlantic.
The Lawrence Class destroyers were a sub-group within the Bainbridge class, and had a different layout forward and a different arrangement of funnels.
The Churchill Mk VIII (A22F) was a version of the Heavy Churchill Mk VII that carried a 95mm howitzer in place of the 75mm gun used on the Mk VII.
The Churchill Mk IX was the designation given to Mk IIIs and Mk IVs that had been upgraded, but that kept their original 6-pounder gun.
The Douglas O-5 was an observation aircraft based on the Douglas World Cruiser, the aircraft that made the first successful circumnavigation of the globe.
The Douglas O-31 was the first in a series of monoplane observation aircraft produced to replace the existing Douglas biplane aircraft, and eventually led to production orders for the O-43 and O-46.
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duc d'Angoulême (1778-1844) was a member of the French Royal Family who returned to France with the British in 1814, fought against Napoleon's supporters during the 100 Days, and who died in exile after his father Charles X was overthrown.
Antoine Fran François, Count Andréossy (1761-1828) was a French engineer and diplomat who served in Italy and Egypt and as Napoleon's ambassador to Britain, Austria and the Ottoman Empire.
The Greco-Persian Wars of c.500-448 BC involved a series of clashes between the Persian Empire and the Greeks of Asia Minor and mainland Greece, and ended as something of a draw, with the Persians unable to conquer mainland Greece and the Greeks unable to maintain the independence of the cities of Asia Minor.
The Peace of Callias (c.448 BC) was almost certainly a formal peace treaty between Persia and the Athenian-led Greek alliance that ended half a century of open conflict between the two powers, and established their spheres of influence in the eastern Mediterranean.
The battle of Blumenau (22 July 1866) was the final battle of the Austrian phase of the war and saw the Prussians attack an Austrian position north-west of Pressburg (now Bratislava), continuing the battle even after news arrived that an armistice was due to come into effect later on the same day (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
The combat of Hundheim (23 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over German Federal troops that began to disrupt an over-ambitious plan for a counterattack aimed at expelling the Prussians from Frankfurt (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
The Hopkins class of destroyers were a sub-group within the larger Bainbridge class, and had a different forward layout and main guns to the standard Bainbridge class ships.
USS Hopkins (DD-6) was the name ship of the Hopkins class of destroyers and mainly served in US home waters before moving to the Panama Canal Zone after American entered the First World War.
The Churchill Mk VI was the designation given to tanks that were armed with the British 75mm tank in the same turret as on the 6-pounder armed Mk IV
The Churchill VII (A22F) was a heavier version of the Churchill tank, with thicker armour, a redesigned turret and carrying the British 75mm gun.
The Douglas XA-42/ XB-42 Mixmaster was a twin-engined pusher aircraft that was one of the most advanced piston engined aircraft of the Second World War, but that was quickly superseded by jet powered aircraft.
The Douglas XB-43 was the first US jet bomber and was produced by fitting jet engines to the earlier Douglas XB-42 Mixmaster.
The battle of Friedland (14 June 1807) was the final battle of the War of the Fourth Coalition, and was a major French victory that forced Tsar Alexander to begin peace talks.
The two treaties of Tilsit (7 and 9 July 1807) ended the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw Napoleon impose very different terms on the Russians and Prussians.
The 440th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 441st Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 442nd Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
Leotychides, king of Sparta (c.545-469, r.491-) was a successful commander during the Greco-Persian Wars, who commanded the Greek army at the battle of Mycale.
Evagoras (r.411-374 BC) was king of Salamis on Cyprus, and an ally of Athens who eventually fell under Persian domination after a failed revolt against the Empire.
The battle of Aschaffenburg (14 July 1866) saw the Prussians gain a foothold on the Main River east of Frankfurt and made it more difficult for the two Federal forces opposing them to join up (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
The battle of Tobitschau (16 July 1866) saw the Prussians attack the Austrians as they attempted to retreat south in the aftermath of their defeat at Königgrätz, forcing the Austrians to abandon their original line of retreat and instead move east across the Carpathian Mountains (Austria-Prussian War of 1866).
USS Dale (DD-4) was a Bainbridge class destroyer and was the second destroyer to be commissioned into the US Navy. She served in the Philippines for most of her career, then in the Mediterranean in 1917-1918.
USS Decatur (DD-5) was a Bainbridge class destroyer. She was the first destroyer to be commissioned into the US Navy and served in the Philippines until 1917 then as an escort ship in the Mediterranean theatre.
The Churchill Mk IV NA75 was produced in North Africa by fitting 75mm guns from Sherman tanks into the cast turrets of the Churchill Mk IV.
The Churchill Mk V was the close-support version of the Mk IV, and was armed with a 95mm howitzer.
The Douglas XB-19 (XVLR-2) was the largest US military aircraft completed before the US entry into the Second World War and provided valuable data for the development of later heavy bombers such as the Boeing B-29 Superfortress.
The Douglas XB-31 was the designation given to a series of Douglas designs produced as part of the same design contest that produced the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, none of which were ever built.
The siege of Danzig (18 March-27 May 1807) was the main French activity in the spring of 1807 and saw them capture one of the last strongholds in Prussian hands after the disastrous defeats of Jena and Auerstadt (War of the Fourth Coalition)
The battle of Heilsberg (10 June 1807) saw the Russians defeat a series of French attacks on their fortified camp at Heilsberg, only to retreat when the French threatened to outflank the position.
Archidamus III, king of Sparta (r.359-338 BC) was a major Spartan leader during the period of the Theban Hegemony, and was unable to prevent a major decline in Spartan power.
Agis III (d.330 BC) was a Spartan king who attempted to revive his city's fortunes, but who was killed during a revolt against Alexander the Great.
The battle of Kissingen (10 July 1866) was the bigger of two battles lost by the Bavarians on the same day in the aftermath of their failure to unite with their German allies (Austro-Prussian War, 1866).
The battle of Laufach (13 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over German Federal troops who were trying to defend the exits from the Spessart Mountains and prevent the Prussians from approaching Frankfurt (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
USS Barry (DD-2) was a Bainbridge class destroyer that served in the Philippines before the First World War and then in the Mediterranean after the US entry into the war.
USS Chauncey (DD-3) was a Bainbridge class destroyer and was the first US destroyer to be lost in service, after colliding with a British merchant ship she was escorting in 1917.
The Churchill Mk III was the first version of the Churchill tank to be armed with a 6-pounder gun, replacing the 2-pounder turret gun of the Mk I and Mk II.
The Churchill IV combined the 6-pounder gun of the Churchill Mk III with a new cast turret.
The Douglas B-22 Bolo was the designation given to a version of the B-18 that would have been powered by the 1,600hp R-2600-2 Cyclone engine.
The Douglas B-23 Dragon was produced in an attempt to replace the B-18 Bolo, but its performance wasn't as good as its more modern rivals and only 38 were ever built.
The 437th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the Crossing of the Rhine.
The 438th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 439th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the Italian campaign and the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.
Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet, duc d'Albufera (1770-1826) was one of the most able of Napoleon's marshals when given an independent command, and performed better than any of his contemporaries during the Peninsular War.
General Jacques Gervaise, baron Subervie (1776-1856) was a French general who commanded a division at Waterloo and went on to have a successful political career after the Napoleonic Wars.
Aristagoras of Miletus (d.c.497-6 BC) was Tyrant of Miletus and helped trigger the Ionian Revolt against Persia, before fleeing into exile in Thrace where he was killed in a minor siege.
Histiaeus (d.c.494/493 BC) was the Tyrant of Miletus during the reign of Darius I and was said to have helped save the Persian army during an expedition across the Danube, before later turning on Darius and encouraging the Ionian Revolt of 500/499 BC.
The battle of Dermbach (4 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over a Bavarian army that prevented the Bavarians from joining up with their German allies (Austro-Prussian War, 1866).
The battle of Hammelburg (10 July 1866) was one of two defeats suffered by the Bavarians on the same day, as they retreated south in the aftermath of a failure to join up with their German allies.
The Bainbridge Class destroyers were the first American destroyers, although they were officially designated as torpedo-boat destroyers. All five served in the Philippines before the First World War and then as escort vessels in the Mediterranean from late 1917.
USS Bainbridge (DD-1) was the name ship of the Bainbridge class of destroyers. She spent most of her active career serving in the Philippines, before spending nine months based at Gibraltar during the First World War.
The Churchill I was armed with a 2-pounder anti-tank gun and coaxial Besa machine gun carried in a small cast turret and a 3" howitzer carried in the hull front. The turret was too small to carry the upcoming 6-pounder gun, even though the tank had been designed with that weapon in mind.
The Churchill Mk II was the most numerous of the 2-pounder versions of the Churchill infantry tank. It carried a 2-pounder gun and a machine gun in the turret and a second machine gun in the hull front.
The Douglas YB-11/ YO-44/ YOA-5 began life as an amphibian navigational leader and rescue aircraft to operate alongside land based bombers, but was completed as an observation aircraft and didn't enter production.
The Douglas B-18 Bolo was a bomber based on the DC-2 airliner and played an important part in the expansion of the USAAC, despite being obsolete by the time the United States entered the Second World War.
General Joseph, Comte Souham (1760-1837) was a French general who fought early in the Revolutionary Wars then fell out of favour, before returning to active service during the Peninsular War, where he briefly commanded the main French army.
General Alexander Antoine Hureau, baron de Senarmont (1769-1810) was a French artillery command best known for his 'artillery charge' at the battle of Friedland.
Artabazus (fl.362-328) BC was a Persian satrap who rebelled against Artaxerxes III but was pardoned, served Darius III loyally and was taken into the service of Alexander the Great.
Mausolus (d.353/350 BC) was a semi-independent Persian satrap most famous for his tomb, the Mausoleum, which was completed by his wife and sister after his death.
The battle of Sadowa or Königgrätz (3 July 1866) was a decisive Prussian victory during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Although the Prussian commander von Moltke failed to achieve the total destruction of the Austrian army that had been his objective, the battle helped break the Austrian will to resist, and peace was made on Prussian terms by the end of July.
USS Guam (CB-2) was the second and last member of the Alaska class of heavy cruisers to be completed, and supported the Fast Carrier Strike Force during the battle of Okinawa and raids on the Japanese Home Islands, before ending the war with raids into the East China Sea.
USS Hawaii (CB-3) was the third and final member of the Alaska class cruisers to be launched, but it was never completed and was finally sold for scrap in 1959.
The Infantry Tank Mk IV Churchill (A22) was a heavily armoured infantry tank that overcame serious reliability problems early in its career to become a mainstay of the British armoured forces during the fighting in North-Western Europe in 1944-45.
The Watanabe K6W1 Experimental 11-Shi Intermediate Seaplane Trainer was a failed design for an aircraft to replace the Yokosuka K5Y Type 93 Intermediate Seaplane Trainer.
The Watanabe E9W1 Navy Type 96 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first aircraft to be designed and built by Watanabe, and was carried on the large Jun Sen Type 3 submarines.
General Edouard-Jean-Baptists, comte Milhaud (1766-1833) was a French cavalry general best known for commanding a cuirassier corps at Waterloo.
General Anne Jean Marie René Savary, duc de Rovigo (1774-1833) was a French soldier and diplomat, who saw widespread military service under Napoleon, but ended the wars as his chief of police.
The 434th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden, the battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 435th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 436th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the Crossing of the Rhine.
Bagoas was a powerful Persian minister who had the Emperors Artaxerxes III and Arses murdered before finally being killed by Darius III.
Arses (r.November 338-June 336 BC) was the penultimate Achaemenid emperor of Persian, and was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, the murderer of the pervious emperor, Artaxerxes III.
The combat of Schweinschadel (29 June 1866) saw the defeat of the last major Austrian attempt to retain a foothold east of the Eble, and completed the series of operations that brought the Crown Prince of Prussia's 2nd Army across the mountains into Bohemia.
The action of Königinhof (29 June 1866) saw the Prussian Guards Corps capture the town and its bridge over the River Elbe, badly disrupting the Austrian plan of campaign (Austria-Prussian War, 1866).
The Alaska Class cruisers were effectively battle cruisers, designed to deal with a potential threat from heavily armoured Japanese and German cruisers that had evaporated by the time the two members of the class were completed.
USS Alaska (CB-1) was the first member of the Alaska class of large cruisers to enter service, and took part in the final stages of the fighting on Iwo Jima, the invasion of Okinawa, and supported the fast carriers during their raids on the Japanese Home Islands and in the East China Sea.
The Valentine Bridgelayer was the last version of the tank to see frontline service, and could deploy a medium sized bridge while under fire.
The Valentine DD was the first production version of the floating tanks that saw action on D-Day when applied to the Sherman tank.
The Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) 'Baka' was a manned suicide rocket that achieved limited success, but was dangerously vulnerable while being carried to its target.
The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (Milky War) 'Frances' was a promising twin-engined medium bomber let down by reliability problems. These delayed its service entry until 1945, five years after work began on the aircraft.
The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) saw Napoleon defeat Prussia at Jena and Auerstädt in 1806, and Russia at Friedland in 1807, and the resulting Peace of Tilsit marked the high point of Napoleon's power.
Autophradates (fl.c.390-330 BC) was a satrap of Lydia during the Satrap's Revolt, and then served Darius III during the invasion of Alexander the Great, taking joint control of the Persian fleet in the Aegean after the death of Memnon of Rhodes.
Ariobarzanes (d.c.360) was the leader of the Satrap's revolt against Artaxerxes II.
The battle of Soor or Berkersdorf (28 June 1866) was a Prussian victory that made up for their defeat at Trautenau on the previous day, and opened up a route to the River Elbe for the Prussian Guard Corps
The battle of Gitschin (or Jicin), 29 June 1866, saw the western wing of the Prussian army invading Bohemia inflict a significant defeat on the retreating Austrian and Saxon troops who had been unable to stop them on the River Iser.
USS Spokane (CL-120) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that arrived too late for service in the Second World War and was decommissioned just before the outbreak of the Korean War. In 1966 she was selected for conversion into an experimental ship, but the work was never finished.
USS Fresno (CL-121) was the final member of the Atlanta class of light cruisers and had a short service career that fell between the end of the Second World War and the start of the Korean War.
The Bishop, or Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr gun, was a self-propelled gun produced in response to an urgent request from Middle East Command.
The Valentine Scorpion III was a mine-clearing flail tank based on the Matilda Scorpion I, which had been developed in the Middle East.
The Experimental Kusho 12-Shi Special Flying-boat H7Y1 was a highly secret attempt to produce a long range flying boat that could reach Hawaii from Japan and return safely with its photographs.
The Yokosuka E14Y Navy Type 0 Submarine-borne Reconnaissance Seaplane 'Glen' was a tiny reconnaissance aircraft that was also the only hostile aircraft to drop bombs on the American mainland during the Second World War.
The 403rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) provided cargo and passenger transport services in the south-west Pacific, as well as supporting the campaigns on New Guinea and the Philippines.
The 419th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) ran transport terminals that helped to organise the activities of other transport units.
The 433rd Troop Carrier Group (USSAF) operated in support of the campaigns on New Guinea and the Philippines and moved parts of the Fifth Air Force to Okinawa.
The siege of Sestus (Autumn-winter 479-478 BC) was the last significant fighting during the campaign of 479, and saw an Athenian force besiege and capture the main Persian base in the Chersonese, on the European side of the Hellespont.
The Satrap's Revolt (c.370s-350s) was a prolonged period of unrest within the Persian Empire, marked by a series of revolts by the satraps, or provincial governors.
The Austro-Prussian or Seven Weeks War of 1866 was the second of three wars that led to German unification under the leadership of Prussia. The Prussians easily defeated their Austrian and German enemies, and became the dominant power in Northern Germany, while Austrian had to abandon her remaining influence in the rest of Germany.
USS Tucson (CL-98) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that joined the fleet just in time to take part in the last sortie against the Japanese Home Islands, and then remained in service until 1949.
USS Juneau (CL-119) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that entered service too late for the Second World War, but saw action during the Korean War. She received five battle stars for Korean War service.
The battle of Morotai (15 September - 4 October 1944) was carried out in order to protect the left flank of any American advance from New Guinea to the southern Philippines, and took them into the Molucca Islands.
The battle of Wewak (December 1944-September 1945) was an Australian offensive on New Guinea, aimed at destroying the last major Japanese position in the pre-war area of Australian New Guinea, on the north coast around Wewak.
The Yokosuka R1Y Seiun (Blue Cloud) was a design for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft that was abandoned due to poor performance figures.
The Yokosuka R2Y Keiun (Beautiful Cloud or Lucky Cloud) was a long-range land-based reconnaissance aircraft powered by two engines mounted within the fuselage and driving a single propeller.
The battle of Mycale (479 BC) was a land battle that resulted in the destruction of the Persian fleet in Asia Minor, and that encouraged the Ionian cities to rebel against Persian authority.
The siege of Thebes (479 BC) followed the Greek victory over the invading Persians at Plataea, and ended after the main Persian supporters in Thebes surrendered.
The battle of Nachod (27 June 1866) saw the Prussians defeat a series of Austrian attacks aimed at recapturing a key position in the Bohemian mountains that had been abandoned without a fight on the previous day.
The battle of Skalitz (28 June 1866) was the second of two victories in two days won by the Prussian V Corps, and helped secure the Prussian position in Bohemia (Austria-Prussian War of 1866)
USS Reno (CL-96) was part of the second batch of Atlanta class light cruisers, and served with the Carrier Task Force from May 1944 until she was badly damaged during the fighting off Leyte.
USS Flint (CL-97) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that joined the fleet in time to take part in the Pacific campaigns of 1945, including the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and the raids on the Japanese Home Islands.
The battle of Noemfoor (2 July-30 August 1944) was a US amphibious landing carried out in order to make up for slow progress on Biak and the resulting shortage of airfields in western New Guinea.
The landings at Sansapor (30-31 July 1944) were the last major American offensive of the long New Guinea campaign, and saw them capture a foothold on the Vogelkop Peninsula, at the western end of New Guinea, where they were able to build a medium bomber base to support operations further west.
The Yokosuka K4Y1 Type 90 Seaplane Trainer was produced to replace the Yokosho K1Y Type 13 Seaplane Trainer, and was the first Japanese production aircraft to use a welded steel tube fuselage.
The Yokosuka K5Y 'Willow' Type 93 Intermediate Trainer was the most widely produced training aircraft produced in Japan, and remained in production from 1933 to 1945.
The siege of Olynthus (early 479 BC) was a success for the Persian forces that had escorted Xerxes back to the Hellespont after the battle of Salamis and saw the city fall to assault and a large part of its population massacred.
The battle of Plataea (27 August 479 BC) was the decisive land battle during the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479) and saw the Persian land army left behind after the failure of the 480 campaign defeated by a coalition of Greek powers.
The 349th Troop Carrier Group reached the European theatre too late to take part in any of the major set-piece airborne assault of the Second World War.
The 374th Troop Carrier Group took part in the long campaign in New Guinea, performing an especially valuable role early in the campaign, when Allied resources were very limited.
The 375th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the long campaign in New Guinea, then supported the liberation of the Philippines and the campaign on Okinawa.
The battle of Langensalza (27 June 1866) was the only significant Prussian setback during the campaign against their German enemies during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, but despite their victories the Hanoverians were forced to surrender two days later.
The battle of Trautenau, 27 June 1866, was the only serious Prussian setback during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and saw the right-hand column of the eastern wing of the advancing Prussian armies suffer a defeat at the hands of the Austrian 10th Corps.
USS San Juan (CL-54) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that fought in the Guadalcanal campaign, the advance up the Solomon Islands, the invasions of the Marshalls, Mariannas, Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, as well as fighting at the battle of the Philippine Sea.
USS Oakland (CL-95) was the first in the second group of Atlanta light cruisers to enter service, and supported carrier raids, fought at the battle of Leyte Gulf, and supported the final attacks on the Japanese Home islands.
The Valentine X was the designation given to tanks that were built from new with the 6-pounder gun.
The Valentine XI was the last production version of the Valentine tank, and was armed with the new British 75mm tank gun. It was similar to the Mk X, which was the first version to be built from new with the 6-pounder anti-tank gun.
The battle of Wakde Island (18-21 May 1944) was part of a wider American offensive carried out in order to protect the western flanks of their newly captured position at Hollandia, on the north coast of New Guinea.
The battle of Biak Island (27 May- 29 July 1944) was one of the most costly of MacArthur's leapfrogging attacks on the north coast of New Guinea and saw a well dug-in Japanese garrison hold out for several months longer than originally expected.
The Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer was produced to replace the existing I-go Ko-gata and Avro 504 seaplane trainers, and was in use from the mid 1920s until the early part of the Pacific War, although in decreased numbers from 1930.
The Yokosho K2Y Navy Type 3 Land-based Primary Trainer was the Japanese Navy's main primary trainer during the 1930s and remained in service at the start of the Pacific War.
The siege of Andros (c.480 BC) is an incident recorded by Herodotus as taking part in the period after the Greek naval victory at Salamis.
The siege of Potidaea (480-479 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian attempt to capture the strongly fortified city in the aftermath of Xerxes's retreat from Greece, and is notable for the first historical record of a tsunami.
The action of Podol (26-27 June 1866) saw the Prussians defeat an Austrian counterattack which was designed to expel the Prussians from their footholds across the River Iser. Instead the battle ended as a Prussian victory which saw them gain control of another major river crossing over the Iser.
The battle of Müchengrätz (28 June 1866) was a missed chance for the Prussians to isolate and destroy the western part of the Austrian army on the River Iser (Austro-Prussian War).
USS Helena (CL-50) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that was present during the attack on Pearl Harbor and fought off Guadalcanal before being sunk at the battle of Kula Gulf in July 1943.
USS San Diego (CL-53) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that fought off Guadalcanal, during the advance up the Solomon Islands, the invasion of the Gilbert islands and the Marshall Islands, the battle of the Philippines Sea and the invasions of the Philippines and Okinawa.
The Valentine VIII was the designation given to Valentine IIIs that had been upgunned to carry the 6-pounder anti-tank gun.
The Valentine IX was the designation given to Mk Vs that were upgunned to carry a 6-pounder anti-tank gun.
The battle of Lone Tree Hill or Wakde-Sarmi (17 May-2 September 1944) was a hard-fought contest for control of a strip of the New Guinea coast near the island of Wakde, and saw the Americans eventually win control of a large enough area for them to use as a staging post on the way to further advances.
The battle of the Driniumor River (10 July -25 August 1944) was a rare large scale Japanese counterattack on New Guinea and saw troops sent west from Wewak attack the American lines east of Aitape, achieving some early successes before being repulsed with heavy losses.
The Yokosho E1Y Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane was based on the earlier Yokosho Type 10 Reconnaissance Seaplane, and was a single-engined biplane that remained in service into the early 1930s.
The Yokosho E5Y Navy Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane was one of three designs accepted by the Japanese Navy to replace the earlier Yokosho Type 14 E1Y, but was only produced in tiny numbers.
The battle of Thermopylae (August 480 BC) is one of the most famous military defeats in history, and is best known for the fate of the 300 Spartans, killed alongside 700 Thespians on the final day of the battle.
The battle of Salamis (23 or 24 September 480 BC) was the decisive battle of Xerxes's invasion of Greece, and was a major Greek naval victory that left the Persian army dangerously isolated in southern Greece.
The combat of Huhnerwasser (26 June 1866) was the first clash between Austrian troops and the Prussian Army of the Elbe at the start of the Prussian invasion of Bohemia (Austro-Prussian War).
The combat of Liebenau (26 June 1866) was the first significant combat during the Austro-Prussia War and saw the Prussians force the Austrians to abandon the village of Liebenau and gain their first foothold across the River Iser.
USS Honolulu (CL-48) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that was damaged at Pearl Harbor before fighting in the Aleutian and Guadalcanal campaigns and the invasions of Saipan, Guam and Leyte.
USS St Louis (CL-49) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that was at Pearl Habor, and fought in the Aleutians, at Gualdalcanal, New Georgia, Bougainville, Saipan, the battle of the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf, the carrier raids on Japan and the invasion of Okinawa.
The Valentine VI, Infantry Tank Mk III***, was a version of the Valentine IV that was built in Canada. The Mk IV was powered by a GMC diesel engine and had the original two-man turret, with 2-pounder gun and 7.92mm Besa machine gun.
The Valentine VII, Infantry Tank Mk III***, was an improved version of the Mk VI, and like that tank was produced in Canada.
The battle of Hollandia (22-27 April 1944) was part of Operation Reckless and saw the Americans leapfrog past a series of Japanese bases to capture a key position on the northern coast of New Guinea, catching the Japanese almost entirely by surprise and winning an unexpectedly easy victory.
The battle of Aitape (22-24 April 1944) was carried out in support of the larger landings at Hollandia, and was designed to provide a shield against any possible intervention by Japanese forces further to the west at Wewak.
The Yokosuka D3Y Myojo (Venus) was originally intended to be a wooden version of the Aichi D3A2-K bomber trainer, but the design was modified while the aircraft was under development. A suicide attack version was also developed, but the prototype of this version was unfinished at the end of the Second World War.
The Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Comet) 'Judy' was designed as a dive bomber, but entered service as a reconnaissance aircraft. It eventually served in that role, and as a bomber and suicide attack aircraft.
The siege of Paros (489 BC) was the final campaign of Miltiades, the most important Athenian leader during the battle of Marathon of 490 BC.
The battle of Artemisium (August 480 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle that was fought on the same three days as the battle of Thermopylae, and that ended when the Greek fleet retreated after learning of the Persian victory at Thermopylae.
USS Atlanta (CL-51) was the name ship of the Atlantic class of light cruisers, and had a short wartime career in the Solomon Islands, before being sunk at the naval battle of Guadalcanal (13-15 November 1942).
USS Juneau (CL-52) was a Atlanta class light cruiser that took part in the Guadalcanal campaign and was sunk by Japanese torpedoes at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.
The Valentine IV was powered by a G.M.C. diesel engine, in place of the A.E.C. model used on the Mk II, but was otherwise similar to the earlier model.
The Valentine V used a new three-man turret, but retained the same engine and main gun of the Valentine IV.
The occupation of Emirau (20 March 1944) helped to complete the Allied noose around the Japanese base at Rabaul and saw the 4th Marine Division occupy the undefended island in the seas west of New Ireland.
Operation Reckless, the invasion of Hollandia and Aitape of 22-27 April 1944, was one of the most dramatic leapfrogging operations during the New Guinea campaign, and saw American forces bypass the strong Japanese bases at Wewak and Hansa Bay and capture key bases for MacArthur's planned return to the Philippines
The Yokosuka B3Y Navy Type 92 Carrier Attack Aircraft was a disappointing level bomber that was produced to replace the Mitsubishi B2M Type 89 Carrier Attack Aircraft
The Yokosuka B4Y Type 96 Carrier Attack Bomber 'Jean' was a torpedo bomber that the Allies erroneously believed was still in service in 1941, a mistake that played a part in their underestimating the threat from Japanese air power.
The battle of Eretria (490 BC) was the second and final Persian success during the campaign that ended in defeat at Marathon.
The battle of Marathon (12 September 490 BC) was the decisive battle during Darius I of Persian's campaigns against the Greeks, and saw the Persians defeated by a largely Athenian army at Marathon in north-eastern Attica.
The 315th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the airborne crossing of the Rhine.
The 316th Troop Carrier Group took part in the fighting in North Africa, the invasions of Sicily and Italy, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the airborne crossing of the Rhine.
The 317th Troop Carrier Group served in the Pacific theatre, taking part in the long New Guinea campaign and in the re conquest of the Philippines.
USS Phoenix (CL-46) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that took part in the fighting in the southern Pacific, during the advance along New Guinea and the invasion of the Philippines, but that is better known as the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano, sunk during the 1982 Falklands War.
USS Boise (CL-47) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that fought at Guadalcanal then took part in the invasion of Sicily and the landings at Salerno on the mainland of Italy before returning to the Pacific to take part in the campaigns on New Guinea, the Philippines and Borneo.
The Valentine II, Infantry Tank Mk III*, was the first version of the tank to use a diesel engine, but retained the 2-pounder gun of the Valentine I.
The Valentine III introduced a new three-man turret, but retained the same engine and main gun as the Valentine II.
The battle of Hauwai Island (11-12 March 1944) saw the Americans capture one of the small islands north of Seeadler Harbour in the Admiralty Islands, despite the failure of their first attack.
The battle of Manus (12-25 March 1944) saw the Americans capture the largest of the Admiralty Islands, securing their control of the massive Seeadler Harbour, which then became an important naval base for the rest of the Second World War.
The Navy Yokosho I-go Ko-gata Seaplane Trainer was produced to replace a pusher Farman type trainer, and was used alongside the Avro 504 by the Japanese Navy in the early 1920s.
The Yokosuka Type 91 Intermediate Trainer was judged to be too close in performance to contemporary service aircraft, and was thus rejected for production.
The battle of Malene (494 BC) ended the career of Histiaeus, former Tyrant of Miletus, a former support of Darius who may have played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt, but who ended his career as something of an adventurer.
The siege of Carystus (490 BC) was an early Persian victory in the campaign that ended at the battle of Marathon.
USS Savannah (CL-42) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the Salerno landings, where she was badly damaged by a radio-controlled bomb that ended her active career.
USS Nashville (CL-43) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in the Doolittle raid, then fought in the Guadalcanal and New Georgia campaigns and during the campaigns in New Guinea and the Philippines.
The 89th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a home-based training unit that operated from 1942 to 1944.
The 313th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that took part in the invasion of Sicily, the Salerno landings, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
The 314th Troop Carrier Group took part in the invasions of Sicily and Italy, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
The Infantry Tank Mk III, Valentine, was the most numerous British-built tank of the Second World War, with over 8,000 built between 1940 and 1944. It was a rare example of a private venture tank design that was accepted for mass production, and thus didn't have an 'A' number like most British tanks.
The Valentine I, Infantry Tank Mk III, was the only version of the tank to use a petrol engine, and was armed with the standard 2-pounder gun of early war British tanks.
The invasion of the Admiralty Islands (25 February-25 March 1944) was a major step in the isolation of the powerful Japanese base at Rabaul, and saw forces from the US Cavalry capture the main islands in a series of battles that lasted for one month.
The battle of Los Negros (29 February-8 March 1944) was the first stage in the American invasion of the Admiralty Islands, a campaign that helped completed the isolation of Rabaul and also forced the Japanese to abandon their stronghold at Madang.
The Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first Japanese-designed aircraft to enter production for the Japanese Navy, and was in service into the late 1920s.
The Navy Type 10 Reconnaissance Seaplane was an unsatisfactory design for an aircraft to replace the Ro-go Ko-gata seaplane that eventually evolved into the more successful Yokosho Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane E1Y.
The battle of Lade (494 BC) was the decisive battle of the Ionian Revolt, and was a crushing Persian naval victory that eliminated Ionian naval power and left the individual Ionian cities exposed to attack.
The siege of Miletus (494 BC) followed the Ionian naval defeat in the battle of Lade, and saw the Persians recapture the city that had triggered the Ionian Revolt in 499.
USS Brooklyn (CL-40) was the name ship of the Brooklyn class of light cruisers and served in the Mediterranean and Atlantic theatres during the Second World War, taking part in Operation Torch and the invasions of Sicily, Italy and the south of France. Brooklyn received four battle stars for her World War II service.
USS Philadelphia (CL-41) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in the US occupation of Iceland, Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the landings at Salerno, Anzio and in the south of France.
The Matilda Murray was a flame-thrower tank produced in Australian that arrived too late to see service in the Second World War.
The Matilda Dozer was a bull-dozer equipped version of the A12 Matilda Infantry tank, produced in Australia for use in jungle warfare.
The battle of Cape Gloucester (26 December 1943-April 1944) was the main American attack during Operation Dexterity, the invasion of western New Britain, and was carried out in order to secure control of the Dampier and Vitiaz Straits, between New Britain and New Ireland.
Operation Appease, or the battle of Talasea (6-16 March 1944) was the last major US advance on New Britain, and saw the US Marines capture Talasea, on the Willaumez Peninsula, cutting off the main route being used by Japanese troops attempting to flee from the western part of the island.
The Yokosho 1-go Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed to be operated from a submarine, and was successfully tested but didn't enter production.
The Yokosho E6Y Type 19 Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first submarine-based reconnaissance plane to be officially accepted by the Japanese Navy.
The 62nd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the battle for Tunisia, the invasion of Sicily, the fighting on the mainland of Italy, the invasion of the south of France and supported partisans in the Balkans.
The 63rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a home based transport unit that was used to move supplies in North America and later as a training group.
The 64th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that operated in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, the south of France and briefly in Burma during the siege of Imphal.
The battle of Labraunda (497 BC) was the second of three battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a second costly defeat for the Carians.
The battle of Pedasus or Pedasa (497 or 496 BC) was the third in a series of battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a major Persian defeat that effectively ended their first large scale counterattack against the rebels.
USS Los Angeles (CA-135) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that served on two tours of duty during the Korean War. Los Angeles received five battle stars for service during the Korean conflict.
USS Chicago (CA-136/ CG-11) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that entered service just in time to take part in the final bombardment of Japan during the Second World War, and that was later converted into a guided-missile cruiser.
The Matilda with Carrot was produced by fitting an explosive charge on a frame mounted in front of the tank, and was designed to clear obstacles and minefields.
The Matilda Frog was a flamethrower tank produced in Australia, around the A12 Matilda infantry tank Mk II.
Operation Dexterity (16 December 1943-10 February 1944) was the Allied invasion of western New Britain, carried out in order to secure the straits between New Britain and New Guinea, and to tighten the Allied net around the Japanese base at Rabaul.
The battle of Arawe (15 December 1943- 16 January 1944) was a diversionary attack on New Britain, carried out to distract Japanese attention from the main American target at Cape Gloucester on the north-west corner of the island.
The 10th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that was based in the United States throughout its existence.
The 60th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) served in the Mediterranean Theatre and took part in Operation Torch, the battle for Tunisia, the invasion of Sicily the liberation of Greece and the partisan battles in Yugoslavia.
The 61st Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) began operations in the Mediterranean, where it took part in the invasions of Sicily and Italy, before moving to England to take part in the D-Day invasion, Operation Market-Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.
The siege of Soli (c.497 BC) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the island's failed participation in the Ionian Revolt, and was the last to be concluded, lasting for four months.
The battle of the Maeander (497 BC) was the first of three battles between Carian rebels and the Persians that eventually disrupted the first major Persian counterattack during the Ionian Revolt.
USS Macon (CA-132) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed too late for service in the Second World War and that was used in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Korean War.
USS Toledo (CA-133) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that carried out three combat tours during the Korean War, and was one of the few members of her class to be continuously in commission in her original configuration.
The Matilda with AMRA Mk Ia was an attempt to create a mine-sweeping vehicle by pushing heavy rollers ahead of a Matilda infantry tank.
The Matilda Scorpion I was a mine-clearing device developed in the Middle East and that saw use in North Africa as well as being modified for use on the Valentine tank.
The battle of Dumpu (8-13 December 1943) was a rare Japanese counterattack during the fighting in the Finisterre Range on New Guinea, and saw them attempt to push the Australians out of their furthest outposts downstream from Dumpu in the Ramu Valley
The battle of Kankiryo Saddle (20 January-1 February 1944) saw Australian troops finally force the Japanese to abandon a key position in the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea, after a period of difficult fighting on jungle-clad mountain ridges that had begun in October 1943 with the first clashes on the famous Shaggy Ridge.
The battle of Salamis, c.497 BC, was a land and sea battle on Cyprus, won by the Persians on land and the Cypriotes and their Ionian allies at sea.
The siege of Paphos (c.497) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the defeat of the Cyprian rebels at Salamis.
The siege of St Quentin (2-27 August 1557) saw Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, hold off a massive army led by Philip II of Spain for nearly a month, badly disrupting his plans for an invasion of France.
The battle of St Quentin (10 August 1557) saw the Spanish defeat a French army that was attempting to get reinforcements to the besieged garrison of St Quentin (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).
USS Bremerton (CA-130) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed just too late to see combat during the Second World War but was recommissioned and was used during the Korean War. Bremerton received two battle stars for service performed during the Korean action.
USS Fall River (CA-131) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that had a very short active career that included a spell as a flagship during the Bikina Atoll atomic weapons tests of 1946.
The Matilda CDL (Canal Defence Light) was a version of the Matilda Infantry Tank Mk II that carried a powerful searchlight instead of its main gun and that was designed to win control of the night-time battlefield.
The Baron was a mine-clearing vehicle based on the Matilda II infantry tank, but despite entering production it was superseded by more effective vehicles and was only used in training.
The Finisterre Range campaign (17 September 1943-24 April 1944) saw Australian troops successfully push the Japanese out of a series of strong defensive positions on incredibly difficult mountainous terrain in the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea, preventing them from interfering with operations further east on the Huon Peninsula.
The battle of Shaggy Ridge (10 October 1943-23 January 1944) saw Australians troops slowly force the Japanese off a narrow mountain ridge that dominated a key route across the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea.
The Kawanishi K-11 Experimental Carrier Fighter was a private venture aircraft produced in an attempt to win a contest being held to replace the Mitsubishi Type 10 Carrier Fighter (1MF1 to 1MF5).
The Kawanishi Baika (Plum Blossom) was a design for a piloted suicide aircraft based loosely on the V1 flying bomb.
The Kawanishi Ki-85 was a very rare example of a Kawanishi aircraft designed for the Japanese Army. It would have been a four-engined heavy bomber based on the Douglas DC-4E and Nakajima G5N1 Shinzan (Mountain Recess), but the project was cancelled early.
The 423rd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a short lived home-based training unit that was disbanded within five months of being activated.
The 424th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that was never fully organised, despite being officially activated on 1 April 1943.
The 426th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that was never fully organised, despite being officially activated on 1 July 1943.
The 432nd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that served with the AAF School of Applied Tactics.
The Persian Conquest of Egypt of 525 BC saw Cambyses II of Persia conquer the fourth major power of the ancient near east, completing the series of conquests begun by his father Cyrus II the Great.
The Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC) was a major uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Persian rule, and is said to have either delayed an inevitable Persian invasion of mainland Greece, or made that invasion more likely.
Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger (c.1519-1554) was an English soldier who fought in the Italian Wars before returning to England, where he led a dangerous revolt against Mary I.
Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of Santa Cruz (1526-1588) was a Spanish naval commander who planned the Spanish Armada, but died just before the fleet sailed, denying the fleet an able commander.
USS Rochester (CA-124) was a member of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers and served three tours of duty during the Korean War. Rochester received six battle stars for Korean War service.
USS Northampton (CA-125/ CLC-1/ CC-1) was laid down as a Baltimore class heavy cruiser, but was completed as a command and control ship and ended up as a Presidential Command Post to be used in case of a nuclear war.
The Matilda Mk IV Infantry Tank Mk IIA** (A12) was a slightly improved version of the Matilda Mk III, with a modified engine mounting system and larger fuel tanks.
The Matilda Mk V, Infantry Tank Mk IIA** was very similar to the Matilda IV, but with some minor improvements made to the transmission.
The battle of Saidor (2 January 1944) saw US troops land between the remaining Japanese bases on the north coast of the Huon Peninsula. As a result the Japanese abandoned all of their bases to the east of the landings.
The battle of the Green Islands (15-20 February 1944) saw a powerful New Zealand force overwhelm the Japanese garrison of the Green Islands between New Britain and Bougainville, part of the wider campaign to isolate the Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng
The Kawanishi K6K1 Experimental 11-Shi Intermediate Seaplane Trainer was an unsuccessful attempt to produce a new trainer to replace the Yokosuka K5Y ‘Willow’ Type 93 Intermediate Seaplane Trainer and Kawanishi E7K 'Alf' Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane
The Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primary Seaplane Trainer was produced in small numbers in 1940, but was cancelled after the Japanese Navy abandoned the use of primary seaplane trainers.
The battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a victory won by the Persians over a rebellious Greek army that was retreating from an attack on the city of Sardis (Ionian Revolt).
The siege of Amathus (c.498/7) saw an attempt by Greek rebels to capture the pro-Persian Phoenician city of Amathus on Cyprus.
Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara (1490-1525) was a Italian general who served in the Imperial service in the middle period of the Italian Wars, and was largely responsible for the decisive Spanish victory at Pavia in February 1525.
Francesco Maria I Della Rovere, duke of Urbino (1490-1538) was an Italian general who spent most of career in the Papal service, but who was unable to prevent the sack of Rome in 1527, and was often seen as a rather sluggish commander.
USS Oregon City (CA-122) was the name-ship of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers and has a short active carrier that lasted for under two years.
USS Albany (CA-123/ CG-10) was a member of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers, and served with the 5th Fleet in the Mediterranean before being converted into a guided missile cruiser.
The Matilda Mk II, Infantry Tank Mk IIA (A12) saw the Vickers machine gun of the original tank replaced with the Besa machine gun that had been adopted as standard for British tanks.
The Matilda Mk III Infantry Tank Mk IIA* saw the introduction of more powerful Leyland diesel engines in place of the AEC engines used in the original Matilda II.
The battle of Sattelberg (29 October-25 November 1943) saw Australian troops capture a strongly defended Japanese position in the hills to the north-west of Finschhafen, and helped secure their position on the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula.
The battle of Wareo (26 November-10 December 1943) saw the Australians capture the last major Japanese stronghold in the vicinity of Finschhafen, at the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula, firmly securing their beachhead and clearing the way for an advance further north around the coast.
The Kawanishi E11K1 Experimental 11-Shi Special Reconnaissance Seaplane / Navy Type 96 Transport was Kawanishi's second attempt to produce a spotter flying boat for the Japanese Navy, and like the first attempt ended in failure.
The Kawanishi E13K1 Experimental 12-Shi Three-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane was an unsuccessful attempt to design an aircraft to replace the Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane E7K.
The 74th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based training group that both trained air crews and operated in support of army units that were training in the United States.
The 75th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that supported army training unit in 1942 and was a replacement training unit from 1943 until 1944.
The 76th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that operated alongside army units that were training in the United States.
The 77th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that mainly operated alongside army units undergoing training, but that also provided detachments for active service around the borders of the United States and in India.
The siege of Naxos (499 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian backed attempt to restore a part of exiled Naxian aristocrats. The failure of the attack played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC), an attempt to overthrow Persian control of the Greek cities of Ionian.
The battle of Sardis (498 BC) was a minor success for the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt, and despite being followed by a retreat and a defeat at Ephesus, helped to spread the revolt to Byzantium, the Hellespont and Caria.
François de Bourbon, Count of Enghien (1519-1546) was a French commander who defeated an Imperial army at Ceresole in 1544 while only 25 but who died two years later in an accident and was thus denied a longer military career.
Louis d'Armagnac, duke of Nemours (1472-1503) was the defeated French commander at the battle of Carignola (28 April 1503), where he became one of the first generals to be killed by handgun fire.
USS Columbus (CA-74/ CG-12) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was later converted into a guided missile cruiser and served in that role with the Atlantic Fleet into the 1970s.
USS Helena (CA-75) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that saw combat during the Korean War. She was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation of the Republic of Korea and the Korean Service Medal with four stars.
The Matilda Infantry Tank Mk II (A12) was the most capable British tank of 1940, but was slow to produce, could only carry a 2pdr gun, and was thus soon obsolete.
The Matilda Mk I, Infantry Tank Mk II (A12) was the first production version of the Matilda II, and would have been one of the most effective tanks in service in 1940 if it had been available in significant numbers.
The Huon Peninsula Campaign (22 September 1943-24 April 1944) was part of the second stage of Operation Postern, and was conducted to clear the Japanese from the shores of the Vitiaz Strait, in order to allow the Allies to use their naval forces off the northern coast of New Guinea.
The battle of Finschhafen (22 September-28 October 1943) marked the start of the Huon Peninusla campaign and saw Australian troops capture the former German port of Finschhafen, at the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula, and then fight off a major Japanese counterattack.
The Nieuport 82 was a basic trainer based on the Nieuport 14 observation aircraft.
The Nieuport 83 was an advanced trainer based on the Nieuport 10 two-seat observation aircraft.
The battle of Pelusium (early 525 BC) was the decisive battle of the first Persian invasion of Egypt, and saw Cambyses II defeat Psamtik III, opening the rest of Egypt to conquest.
The siege of Memphis (early 525 BC) was the last recorded resistance to Cambyses II of Persia's invasion of Egypt, and came after the main Egyptian army had been defeated at Pelusium.
The battle of Marciano (2 August 1554) saw the active field army of Siena suffer a heavy defeat, allowing their Florentine enemies to focus all of their efforts on the siege of Siena.
The battle of Renty (13 August 1554) was a minor French victory during an Imperial invasion of Picardy that was most notable as Charles V's last battle (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).
USS St Paul (CA-73) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that took part in the final carrier raids on Japan during 1945 and carried out three combat tours of Korea, firing the last naval salvo of the war and five combat tours of Vietnam.
USS Pittsburgh (CA-72) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed in time to take part in the attacks on Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Japanese Home Islands and that served in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Korean War.
The attack on Nadzab (5 September 1943) was a successful airborne assault carried out in order to support the Australian advance on Lae, at the head of the Huon Gulf .
The battle of Lae (4-16 September 1943) was the final stage in the Salamaua-Lae Campaign, and saw Australian troops with US support capture the last Japanese stronghold in the Huon Gulf area of New Guinea.
The Nieuport 80 was a two-seat trainer with one set of controls, developed from the Nieuport 12 and Nieuport 13.
The Nieuport 81 was a dual control trainer based on the earlier Nieuport 12 and Nieuport 13.
Achaemenes (or Hakhamanesh), fl. early 7th C. BC, was the possibly legendary founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, the founders of the Persian Empire.
Teispes, fl. mid 7th C BC, was the second recorded king of the Achaemenid dynasty, and may have expended his kingdom from its basis in Persis during a period of weakness in the Median Empire.
Cyrus I, fl mid 7th C. BC, was the third Achaemenid king of Persis, then part of the wider Median Empire.
Cambyses I was king of Persis (c.600-559) and the father of Cyrus II the Great, founder of the Persian Empire.
The siege of Metz (October 1552-January 1553) was a failed Imperial attempt to recapture Metz that was one of Charles V's last major military operations and that was said to have played a part in the decline of his health and his decision to abdicate (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).
The siege of Siena (January 1554-April 1555) was one of the longer sieges of the Italian Wars, and was one of the last attempts by the pro-French party in Italy to counter Imperial and Spanish power in Italy.
The Kawanishi E8K1 Experimental 8-Shi Reconnaissance Seaplane was an advanced monoplane design that didn't have the manoeuvrability required by the Japanese navy and thus never entered production.
The Kawanishi E10K1 Experimental 9-Shi Night Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed to serve as a spotter aircraft with the Japanese fleet, but failed to satisfy in that role, or in its alternative role as a light transport.
The 70th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that was used to help with the training of army units.
The 71st Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) operated in the Pacific theatre from the end of 1943 until the end of the Second World War, focusing on reconnaissance but flying a wide range of other missions at the same time.
The 72nd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a reconnaissance group that was based in the Panama Canal Zone during 1942 and 1943.
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (El Gran Capitán), 1453-1515, was a Spanish general who reformed the infantry in the early stages of the Italian Wars, helping to create the famous tercio formation that made Spanish armies so formidable during the sixteenth century.
Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto (c.1469-1528) was a highly successful Spanish engineer who entered French service after the Spanish government refused to pay his ransom after he was captured at the battle of Ravenna in 1512.
USS Canberra (CA-70) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was badly damaged by a Japanese torpedo during the battle off Formosa (12-16 October 1944) but that was towed to safety, a remarkable achievement that also helped to convince the Japanese that they had inflicted heavy damage on the American fleet.
USS Quincy (CA-71) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that helped support the D-Day landings and Operation Dragoon before moving to the Pacific for the final battles against Japan.
The Salamaua-Lae Campaign (30 June-16 September 1943) was the first part of Operation Postern, a wider offensive aimed at eliminating the Japanese presence on the New Guinea side of the Vitiaz Strait.
The battle of Salamaua (30 June-11 September 1943) was the first stage in the Allied campaign in north-eastern New Guinea, and saw Australian troops slowly push forwards across difficult terrain, pulling the Japanese away from their major base at Lae, further up the coast.
The Nieuport 27 was the last in the long series of Nieuport sesquiplane fighters that had begun with the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11, and was very similar to the previous version, the Nieuport Type 24.
The Nieuport 28 was a totally new design that was produced in an attempt to replace the famous sesquiplane fighters that had begin with the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11.
The siege of Pavia (27 October 1524-24 February 1525) saw the defenders of the city hold long enough for Imperial reinforcements to read Italy before inflicting a crushing defeat on Francis I at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525).
The battle of Pavia (24 February 1525) was the decisive battle of the First Hapsburg-Valois War, and was a French defeat that saw Francis I captured and that permanently undermined the French position in Italy.
USS Baltimore (CA-68) was the name ship of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers, and saw service at Makin, in the Marshall Islands, supported the fast carriers during 1944 and 1945 and took part in the battle of Okinawa.
USS Boston (CA-69/ CAG-1) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that escorted the American fast carriers in the Pacific in 1944-45, took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf and the last raids on the Japanese Home Islands.
Operation Postern - The Markham Valley/ Huon Peninsula Campaign of 4 September 1943-24 April 1944 saw a largely Australian force clear the Japanese from the Huon Gulf and the Huon Peninsula and ended with the fall of the major Japanese base at Madang, to the north-west of the Huon Peninsula.
The battle of Nassau Bay (30 June 1943) was an early step in the wider Allied offensive in the Huon Gulf area of New Guinea (Operation Postern), and was carried out in order to capture a staging post for later steps in the campaign and to improve the supply situation for the main Australian force attacking Salamaua from inland bases.
The Nieuport 19 was a twin-engined aircraft that was ordered by the RNAS, but that was never delivered.
The Nieuport Triplane of 1916-17 was a very unusual design, with the middle wing thrust well forward of the upper wing. This arrangement was meant to improve the pilot's view, but the aircraft was unstable and didn't enter production.
The Treaty of Noyon (13 August 1516) ended the fighting between Spain and France after Francis I's first invasion of Italy.
The battle of La Bicocca (27 April 1522) was the first in a series of French battlefield defeats in Italy during the First Hapsburg-Valois War and saw an army sent to recapture Milan defeated just outside the city.
The 67th Reconnaissance Group flew with the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces during the campaign in Europe in 1944-45, taking part in the D-Day campaign, the advance through France, the battle of the Bulge and the final invasion of Germany.
The 68th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was originally formed as an Observation Group in the United States in the summer of 1941, before serving in the Mediterranean Theatre as a reconnaissance, ground attack and electronic countermeasures group.
The 69th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) spent most of the Second World War operating as a training unit, but did reach Europe in time to take part in the last few weeks of the war against Germany.
USS Wichita (CA-45) was the last heavy cruiser to be produced for the US Navy before the outbreak of the Second World War, and the last to be restricted by the interwar naval treaties.
The Atlanta class light cruisers were the lightest and most lightly armed cruisers to see service with the US Navy during the Second World War and were a product of the London Naval Treaty of 1936.
The New Guinea campaign (January 1942-September 1945) was one of the longest campaigns of the Second World War. It began with the easy Japanese conquest of most of the north coast of the massive island. The Japanese finally ran out of steam during the Papuan Campaign, and were unable to capture Port Moresby on the south coast of Papua New Guinea. The Allies then went onto the offensive. The Japanese were pushed back across to the north coast of Papua, before the Allies began a series of campaigns that eventually gave them control of almost the entire island.
The Nieuport 15 was an attempt to produce a dedicated bomber, but its performance was disappointing and despite an order from the RNAS it never entered service.
The designation Nieuport 18 appears to have been given to more than one aircraft type, including a single engined fighter and a twin engined three-man bomber.
Alfonso I Este, duke of Ferrara (1476-1534) was a pro-French Italian leader who managed to maintain his position in the Po valley despite the hostility of a series of popes.
Cesare Borgia (c.1475/6-1507) was the younger son of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), and after a brief church career became a successful military commander.
The 26th Reconnaissance Group was a home-based unit that took part in military exercises and helped train ground forces.
The 65th Reconnaissance Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, the first as a home based observation unit and the second as a training unit.
The 66th Reconnaissance Group was a home-based unit that served as a reconnaissance and and artillery spotting training unit as well as flying anti-submarine patrols during the first half of 1942.
The Brooklyn class cruisers were the first 6in cruisers to be built for the US Navy after the London Naval Treaty imposed limits on the number of 8in cruisers that could be built.The Baltimore Class Heavy Cruisers were the only American heavy cruisers not limited by the pre-war Naval Treaties to see service with the US Navy during the Second World War, and were developed from the last of the treaty cruisers, USS Wichita.
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